The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) under the Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat is functioning from 2006. ISR is the only institute in india fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier international institute in few years time.
Earthquake Monitoring Program
Gujarat seismic network of 60 Broadband Seismographs and 50 Strong Motion Accelerographs is operated since 2006. Data of 36 broadband stations is processed in real-time through VSAT and Auto location software round the clock to determine the epicenter and magnitude of earthquakes within minutes of arrival of the seismic waves and the information is disseminated to administrators for taking appropriate mitigation measures. Space-time pattern of seismicity gives information about newly active faults. One Earthquake Research Center has been started at Bhachau in Kachchh.
Crustal Deformation Study by GPS Measurements
Crustal deformation study is being carried out through GPS measurements in seismically active belts of Gujarat. Twenty-two permanent GPS stations were setup in Gujarat and eleven campaign mode GPS stations were deployed in the Kachchh region. The GPS studies as well as the InSAR studies carried out in collaboration with ISRO in Kachchh indicate significant uplift.
Seismic Hazard Assessment
ISR has prepared a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard (PSH) Map of India for BIS. Vulnerability Assessment of Ports and installations in Coastal Gujarat has been worked out. ISR is participating in global efforts of seismic hazard assessment: (i) Global Earthquake Model (With Italy + Germany) (ii) Seismic & Tsunami hazard using EU – India e-Infrastructure with Italy using Grid & cloud computing. Seismic Hazard Assessment, Project Specific: GIFT City, Sardar Patel Statue, LNG Terminal (Mundra), Nuclear Power Plants, V S Hospital, Ahmedabad
Seismic microzonation is a rigorous process involving several types of seismic, geophysical, geological and geotechnical investigations for advising seismic coefficient for the area, amplification due to soil for different heights of buildings and ground conditioning methods to safeguard against liquefaction. ISR has done seismic microzonation studies at Gandhidham-Kandla -Anjar area and is doing microzonation at Dholera SIR, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar. Surat & Bharuch have been taken up in collaboration with Geological Survey of India. Now every year one new area will be taken up for seismic microzonation.
Tsunami modeling of wave arrival time and amplitude in Arabian Sea from large earthquakes in Makran has been done and such information is given for coastal towns. A constant watch is kept for earthquakes along Makran coast for sounding tsunami alert. Near real time rupture modeling of earthquakes in Makran along with real time GPS modeling is being undertaken which will be helpful in estimating directivity and tsunami amplitude for effective tsunami warning.
Seismic, Gravity, Magnetotelluric, Resistivity, GPR and other Geophysical surveys are carried out for study of shallow and deep crustal structure and faults
(i) Study of Deep Crustal and lithospheric structures: Imaging through seismic soundings, seismic tomography as well as by magneto telluric and gravity surveys.
(ii) 2D and 3D Seismic Surveys for Petroleum Exploration and Mapping of Basement Structures: ISR gets done onshore and offshore 2D and 3D seismic surveys for petroleum exploration and determining the basement structures and faults. Large areas in the transition zone of Gujarat have tremendous petroleum prospects.
(iii) 3D Magnetotelluric Survey: The method has been pioneered by ISR. It is found to be an effective method to find crustal structure and geological faults beneath the Deccan Basalts where other methods are not successful. This type of survey will be useful to tap vast petroleum reserves in Mesozoic rocks beneath the Deccan Traps and geothermal energy resources. The method could be essential for detecting any geological faults close to planned crucial plants like nuclear power plants or LNG Terminals close to postulated faults.
As per OUTREACH PROGRAM, ISR helped a number of Universities in Gujarat in many ways: (i) Starting and running of M.Sc Geophys course at Ganpat Univ. (i) PhD and M.Tech dissertations (ii) training of students in geology, geophysics, geotechnical investigations in our rich labs and field surveys (iii) delivering lectures in special courses of different Univ. We train some 100 students annually for durations of months to a year and in summer / winter training programs for which students come from all corners of the country.
Help to Industry
Many investigations were undertaken for help to industry and as matters of societal importance like:
(i) Pilot Project on Extraction of Uranium from Nuclear Waste for BARC using the magnetic separator in the OSL lab
(ii) Investigation of faults crossing the petroleum pipelines
(iii) seismic hazard to new solar parks and railway stations
(iv) water logging problem in Olpad, Ankleshwar
(v) determination of thickness of limestone beds for adequate royalty (without the knowledge of correct thickness the lease holders were paying less royalty and
(vi) discovery of paleochannels for possible potable water in Kachchh.
NEW PLANS OF ISR
Earthquake Early Warning: ISR plans to develop earthquake early warning system for Ahmedabad and other cities using the Strong Motion Accelerograph data of Kachchh region which will be connected through VSAT. Hardware and software is being setup for this system.
Seismic Hazard Maps:
(i) Probabilistic Seismic Hazard map of India and Gujarat.
(ii) Characteristic frequency and amplification map of Gujarat.
(iii) Vs30 Map of Gujarat
(iv) Deterministic PGA Map and Response Spectra for important selected areas of Gujarat
GIS–Based intelligent shake maps: To be provided soon after earthquakes on website for different magnitude earthquakes at different types of geological terrains for aid in rescue and rehabilitation.
Preparation of Geotechnical Atlas of Gujarat: It will include borehole lithologs and other geotechnical data.
Earthquake prediction Research
Patterns of Foreshocks: Many times increased foreshock activity with larger magnitudes has been found close to impending moderate earthquakes in Kachchh. A model for earthquake prediction based on such data is being prepared.
Multi Parametric Geophysical Observatories: Three Multi-Parametric Geophysical observatories are run at Vamka, Desalpar and Badargadh in Kachchh for earthquake prediction research. Twelve different geophysical parameters are monitored. Precursory signals were observed in radon, gravity and magnetic fields..
Paleoseismic studies: Dating of pre-historic earthquakes and past geological disturbances is being carried out which gives recurrence rates along different faults. For this purpose an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Lab has been set up. A map of geological faults in Gujarat has been prepared and their neotectonics is investigated.
ISR has established in its new campus, seismic data analysis centre, Geotechnical Lab, Global Positioning System Lab, Engineering seismology Lab, Optically Stimulated Luminescence Lab for dating of sediments, Engineering Geophysics Lab, Gravity & Magnetics Lab, Electrical and eletromagnetic lab.